What Your Urine Says About Your Health


Have you been to a laboratory and requested a urinalysis test? Your urine is collected and analyzed, and the result shows a list of things you can’t fully understand. Aside from a urinalysis, understanding what your urine says about your health is crucial to help you monitor your well-being. 

Typically, a simple urinalysis gives an insight into various aspects of your health, including hydration levels, kidney function, and potential underlying medical conditions. This article explores the different elements of urinalysis and its meaning including colour, appearance, smell, and other important details, to help you interpret what your urine might say about your health.

Urine Colour 

The colour of your urine can vary widely, depending on factors such as hydration, diet, medications, and underlying health conditions.

  • Pale Yellow to Clear: The urine colour is usually pale yellow to clear, which means you are well-hydrated and healthy.
  • Dark Yellow to Amber: It may indicate dehydration. Increase your fluid intake.
  • Orange or Brown: This may be due to certain medications, liver issues, or dehydration.
  • Red or Pink: It could be due to blood in the urine (hematuria), which may indicate urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney stones, or other urinary tract issues. Certain foods like beets or medications can also cause it.

Urine Appearance

While the colour of your urine can be a good indicator of your health, the appearance of urine can be a good indicator too.

  • Clear: Normal in well-hydrated individuals.
  • Cloudy: This may indicate the presence of white blood cells, red blood cells, bacteria, or mucus, suggesting infection or other issues.
  • Foamy: Excessive foam may indicate protein in the urine (proteinuria), which can be a sign of kidney problems.

How Should the Urine Smell?

The odour of urine is another thing to consider during urinalysis. While urine has a typical smell, an unusual odour can be due to poor hydration, food, and underlying health issues. 

  • Mild Odour: Normal for most people.
  • Strong or Foul Odour: This could be due to concentrated urine (dehydration) or certain foods like asparagus. It can also indicate infections or metabolic disorders.

Urine Frequency and Volume

Monitoring how often you urinate and the volume can also help you know if everything is okay. 

  • Normal Frequency: Typically, 6-8 times a day for most adults.
  • Increased Frequency: This could be due to increased fluid intake, diabetes, UTIs, or other medical conditions.
  • Decreased Frequency: This may indicate dehydration, kidney issues, or certain medications.

pH Levels

The pH level of urine indicates its acidity or alkalinity.

  • Normal pH: Usually between 4.6 and 8.0.
  • Acidic Urine (Low pH): This could be due to a high-protein diet, metabolic disorders, or respiratory conditions.
  • Alkaline Urine (High pH): This may be caused by certain medications, UTIs, or metabolic disorders.

Specific Gravity

Specific gravity measures urine concentration, reflecting how often you hydrate.

  • Normal Specific Gravity: Around 1.010 to 1.030.
  • Low Specific Gravity: Dilute urine, often due to excess fluid intake or certain medical conditions.
  • High Specific Gravity: Concentrated urine, indicating dehydration, kidney issues, or other health issues.

Glucose and Ketones

Glucose or ketones in urine can indicate diabetes or other metabolic conditions.

  • Glucose: High levels may indicate diabetes or gestational diabetes.
  • Ketones: Presence can indicate diabetic ketoacidosis, fasting, or low-carb diets.

What Does Protein in Urine Mean?

Protein in urine (proteinuria) can be due to kidney damage or other health issues. In some cases, a faint to small amounts is normal. However persistent proteinuria may indicate kidney problems.

What Blood in Urine Means

The presence of blood in urine (hematuria) can be due to infections, kidney stones, or underlying medical conditions, among other things.

A microscopic hematuria is when blood is not visible to the naked eye but detectable under a microscope. Macroscopic hematuria is when blood is visible in urine. When this happens, it needs prompt medical attention.

Bilirubin and Urobilinogen

These substances can be indicators of liver health.

  • Bilirubin: Elevated levels may indicate liver disease or red blood cell breakdown.
  • Urobilinogen: Elevated levels can be a sign of liver or gallbladder problems.



Finally, monitoring the colour, appearance, smell, frequency, pH levels, specific gravity, and presence of various substances in your urine can give clues about your overall health. While changes in urine characteristics can sometimes be due to harmless factors like diet or hydration, persistent or concerning changes should be discussed with your doctor for proper investigation and diagnosis. Regular check-ups and maintaining a healthy lifestyle are crucial for your well-being.



  • 1
Reply Report
If You want to add Image for your answer
If You want to add Image for your answer